[Terminal] Using rsync with –backup and –delete together

I’m using rsync to create backups from my NAS to an external HDD. The command looks like this:

rsync -azP --delete --exclude=/.zfs -b --backup-dir=Backup /mnt/nfs/photos/ /media/nocin/externalBackup/photos/ 
rsync parameterdescription
-a –archiveThis is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you want recursion and
want to preserve almost everything.
-z –compressWith this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data being transmitted
-PThe -P option is equivalent to –partial –progress. Its purpose is to make it much easier to specify these two options for a long transfer that may be interrupted.
–deleteThis tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving side (ones that aren’t on the sending side)
–excludeexclude files matching PATTERN
-b –backup-dirWith this option preexisting destination files are renamed with a ~ extension as each file is transferred. You can control where the backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using the –backup-dir and –suffix options.

But somehow it always created the Backup folder recursively again inside the Backup folder. So the first run created the /Backup folder, after the second run I’ve got /Backup/Backup, after the third run /Backup/Backup/Backup and so on..

The solution was to exclude the Backup directory using the --exclude command.

rsync -azP --delete --exclude=/.zfs --exclude=Backup -b --backup-dir=Backup /mnt/nfs/photos/ /media/nocin/externalBackup/photos/ 

I found a good explanation for this behaviour here: https://www.jveweb.net/en/archives/2011/02/using-rsync-and-cron-to-automate-incremental-backups.html

“If we are storing backups in the destination folder, or in a directory inside of the destination folder, the --delete parameter is going to delete old backups, as they are not in the source folder. Or attempt to as in the following situation:

Say, we already have a folder called backup inside of the destination directory, and we use rsync again, using --backup-dir=backup one more time. As rsync is going to attempt to delete every file and folder that is not in the source directory, it would backup the backup folder, which would create a backup folder inside our already existing backup folder, and then it would attempt to delete the backup folder and fail because it is using it to backup files.”

[Terminal] F2 – Command-line batch renaming tool

Project: https://github.com/ayoisaiah/f2
Wiki: https://github.com/ayoisaiah/f2/wiki
Installation: https://github.com/ayoisaiah/f2/wiki/Installation

curl -LO https://github.com/ayoisaiah/f2/releases/download/v1.6.1/f2_1.6.1_linux_amd64.tar.gz
tar -xvzf f2_1.6.1_linux_amd64.tar.gz 
chmod +x f2 
sudo mv f2 /usr/local/bin 
rm f2_1.6.1_linux_amd64.tar.gz 

Renaming a file from ‘img’ to ‘Image’

# test run
f2 -f 'img' -r 'Image'
# performing the actual renaming
f2 -f 'img' -r 'Image' -x
# undo the changes
f2 -u -x

Or renaming episodes from 01_S1.MyEpisode.mp4 to S01E01.MyEpisode.mp4

f2 -f '.._S1' -r 'S01E%02d'

[Software] Ventoy

https://www.ventoy.net

“Ventoy is an open source tool to create bootable USB drive for ISO/WIM/IMG/VHD(x)/EFI files.
With ventoy, you don’t need to format the disk over and over, you just need to copy the ISO/WIM/IMG/VHD(x)/EFI files to the USB drive and boot them directly.”

Download: https://github.com/ventoy/Ventoy/releases
Installation: https://www.ventoy.net/en/doc_start.html

sudo sh Ventoy2Disk.sh -i /dev/sdx

[Android] Upgrading LineageOS 16.0 to 17.1 on my Xiaomi Mi 8 (dipper)

Install the Android Debug Bridge (ADB)

https://wiki.lineageos.org/adb_fastboot_guide.html
https://github.com/M0Rf30/android-udev-rules#installation

# check if device is found
adb devices
# reboot into sideload modus
adb reboot sideload

Or manually boot into TWRP recovery holding Volume Up + Power when the phone is off. Navigate to Advanced-> ADB Sideload.


Update MIUI Firmware

If your current MIUI Firmware does not support Android 10, you have to update it first.
Dowload the newest MIUI Firmware for your device from https://xiaomifirmwareupdater.com/firmware/dipper/.
Flash the new Firmware via TWRP or via ADB sideload.

adb sideload Downloads/fw_dipper_miui_MI8Global_V12.0.2.0.QEAMIXM_4e38c51916_10.0.zip   

Download and flash new LineageOS image

I’m using the LinageOS fork LineageOS for microG. Download it from here: https://download.lineage.microg.org/dipper/ (MI 8 = dipper)
The upgrade steps are the same as for the officially rom: https://wiki.lineageos.org/devices/dipper/upgrade. In my case only flashing the new image.

adb sideload Downloads/lineage-17.1-20210327-microG-dipper.zip 

[Mint] Install PyWal on Linux Mint 20.1 Cinnamon

“Pywal is a tool that generates a color palette from the dominant colors in an image. It then applies the colors system-wide and on-the-fly in all of your favorite programs.”

https://github.com/dylanaraps/pywal/wiki/Installation

pip3 install pywal

I’m using Variety to change my wallpaper every day automatically. To always get the right colors in my terminal I added some lines in my .zshrc that will always grab the current wallpaper and pass it to PyWal. I’m sure a bash pro would do this in just one line… 🙂

#---PyWal---#
# load previous theme
(cat ~/.cache/wal/sequences &)
# get picture path
picturepath=$(gsettings get org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri) 
# remove prefix & suffix
prefix="'file://" 
suffix="'"
picturepath=${picturepath#"$prefix"} 
picturepath=${picturepath%"$suffix"}
# set colors
wal -n -q -i "$picturepath"
#---PyWal End---#

There are many plugins/tools you can combine with PyWal:

https://github.com/frewacom/pywalfox

https://github.com/khanhas/Spicetify

https://github.com/themix-project/oomox

[RaspberryPi] Audio Projects

MoOdehttps://moodeaudio.org/
RuneAudiohttps://www.runeaudio.com/
Volumiohttps://volumio.org/
Mopidyhttps://mopidy.com/
HiFiBerryOShttps://www.hifiberry.com/hifiberryos/
Raspberry Pi Audio Receiverhttps://github.com/nicokaiser/rpi-audio-receiver
Raspbian Stretch as a headless Bluetooth A2DP audio sinkhttps://gist.github.com/mill1000/74c7473ee3b4a5b13f6325e9994ff84c
BT-Speakerhttps://github.com/lukasjapan/bt-speaker

Multi-room Audio

Snapcasthttps://github.com/badaix/snapcast
Strobe Audiohttps://strobe.audio/

[Mint] Software I usually install on my daily driver

Software you get from the default repository’s:

sudo apt install \
chromium \
cantata \
vlc \
kdeconnect \
blueman \
flameshot \
skypeforlinux \
git \
python3-pip \
python-is-python3 \
thefuck \
fortune \
cowsay \
micro \
stacer \
variety \ 
conky \
tldr \
tmux \
bashtop \
birdtray \

AppImages

Remmina

sudo apt-add-repository ppa:remmina-ppa-team/remmina-next
sudo apt update
sudo apt install remmina remmina-plugin-rdp remmina-plugin-secret

Mainline – Ubuntu Mainline Kernel Installer

sudo apt-add-repository -y ppa:cappelikan/ppa
sudo apt update
sudo apt install mainline

youtube-dl (Check the supported sites here)

sudo curl -L https://yt-dl.org/downloads/latest/youtube-dl -o /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
sudo chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
#Set default download path
micro .config/youtube-dl/config
-o ~/Downloads/%(title)s.%(ext)s
#usage converting to mp3
youtube-dl -x --audio-format mp3 --add-metadata --embed-thumbnail https://youtu.be/dQw4w9WgXcQ

broot

echo "deb http://packages.azlux.fr/debian/ buster main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/azlux.list
wget -qO - https://azlux.fr/repo.gpg.key | sudo apt-key add -
apt update
apt install broot

Lutris (Great guide: https://christitus.com/ultimate-linux-gaming-guide/)

# Install latest Drivers: https://github.com/lutris/docs/blob/master/InstallingDrivers.md
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:kisak/kisak-mesa
sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386 
sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade
sudo apt install libgl1-mesa-dri:i386
sudo apt install mesa-vulkan-drivers mesa-vulkan-drivers:i386

#Add "RADV_PERFTEST=aco" to /etc/environment

# Install Wine https://wiki.winehq.org/Ubuntu
wget -nc https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/winehq.key
sudo apt-key add winehq.key
sudo add-apt-repository 'deb https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu/ focal main' 
sudo apt update
sudo apt install --install-recommends winehq-stable

# Lutris
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:lutris-team/lutris
sudo apt update
sudo apt install lutris

Lolcat https://nocin.eu/shell-neofetch-lolcat/

Cinnamon Extensions https://cinnamon-spices.linuxmint.com/extensions/view/81

Zsh https://nocin.eu/terminal-zsh-oh-my-zsh-powerlevel10k/

Thunderbird with https://addons.thunderbird.net/de/thunderbird/addon/tbsync/ + https://protonmail.com/bridge/ and Thunderbird Conversations (+ configuring birdtray!)

Transmission Remote GUI https://github.com/transmission-remote-gui/transgui

FreeOffice https://www.freeoffice.com/de/download/programme

SAP Gui https://nocin.eu/sap-install-sap-gui-for-java-7-50-on-linux-mint-20/

Steam https://store.steampowered.com/about/

Telegram https://desktop.telegram.org/

Bashtop https://nocin.eu/software-bashtop-alternative-to-top-and-htop/

Increase GRUB Timeout

sudo micro /etc/default/grub

#Setze von 0 auf 5
GRUB_TIMEOUT=5

sudo update-grub

Create new shortcut for the “System Monitor”

Copying my dotfiles over. First the .aliases

alias zoop="echo '👉😎👉 ~Zoop!~' | lolcat"
alias moo='fortune | cowsay | lolcat'
alias tux='fortune | cowsay -f tux | lolcat'
alias gnu='fortune | cowsay -f gnu | lolcat'


alias ll='ls -Al --color=auto --block-size=MB'
alias ls='ls -l --color=auto --block-size=MB'
alias cp='cp -vR'
alias rm='rm -vR'
alias mv='mv -v'
alias ln='ln -v'
alias mkdir='mkdir -v'
alias chown='chown -v'
alias chmod='chmod -v'
alias rmdir='rmdir -v'
alias tar='tar -xvf'

alias sudo="sudo " #Allows for aliases to work with sudo.
alias wget='wget -qc --show-progress' #Download with WGet with pretty and useful features.
alias grep='grep -sI --color=auto' #Colorful (auto) 'grep' output.
alias psf='ps -faxc -U $UID -o pid,uid,gid,pcpu,pmem,stat,comm' #Less excessive, current-user-focused ps alternative.
alias klog="sudo dmesg -t -L=never -l emerg,alert,crit,err,warn --human --nopager" #Potentially useful option for viewing the kernel log.
alias lsblk='lsblk -o name,label,fstype,size,type,uuid'


# Micro Editor
alias mic='micro'

# Column bereitet daten in spalten auf
alias mount='mount | column -t'

#mkdir && cd
function mcd() {
    mkdir -p $1
    cd $1
}

alias dl='cd "$HOME"/Downloads'

Followed by my .zshrc

neofetch | lolcat

# See https://github.com/ohmyzsh/ohmyzsh/wiki/Themes
# ZSH_THEME="robbyrussell"
ZSH_THEME=powerlevel10k/powerlevel10k

# zsh-syntax-highlighting has to be the last plugin!
plugins=(git tmux zsh-autosuggestions zsh-syntax-highlighting)

# Preferred editor for local and remote sessions
 if [[ -n $SSH_CONNECTION ]]; then
   export EDITOR='micro'
 else
   export EDITOR='nano'
 fi

# To customize prompt, run `p10k configure` or edit ~/.p10k.zsh.
[[ ! -f ~/.p10k.zsh ]] || source ~/.p10k.zsh

source $ZSH/oh-my-zsh.sh

if [ -f ~/.aliases ]; then
. ~/.aliases 
fi
eval $(thefuck --alias FUCK)